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Volcanoes, Minerals and People

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Mineral Collector Ethiopia Tour

Travel Ethiopia to one of the most interesting countries in Africa, because of its rich ore concentrations. Already the Chinese are preparing for the use of industrial minerals and gems. On this excursion we will have the great opportunity to visit areas that promise a geology with rich minerals and gems. With our local contacts we will be able to discover nice samples. Our local contacts will support mineral collectors who want to export their samples or to buy nice samples from locals. Also we will have many opportunities to take great photos of the impressive Ethiopian nature, culture and people. You will discover an different image of Africa.

Legend of Ethiopia

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Lalibela Ethiopia

Ancient History

Travel Ethiopia, Live Ethiopia, Experience Ethiopia, “the Cradle of Mankind”. Modern human being and its hominid ancestors evolved in the eastern zone of the great African Rift Valley. “Lucy”, one of our most distant ancestors, lived around 3.2 million years ago and it was found in the Awash Valley. Recently the discovery of an even older hominid fossil in the Afar desert, 4.4 million years old “Ardi”, has been published.

Ethiopia was known from the dawn of civilisation and has a 3000 year old history. The ancient Egyptians knew that their sacred and vital river Nile originated from a lake on a plateau in the land of “Punt” (“Land of the Gods” in their language) and they knew about a garden existing beyond the desert.

The legendary history of this country starts with the mythical Queen of Sheba who, after paying visit to the biblical King Salomon in Jerusalem, gave birth to his son Menelik I, the latter king of the Sabean or Axumite Empire. He took the Ark of the Covenant from the temple in Jerusalem to Ethiopia, where it is believed to rest until now.

However, also historical sources bear witness to the existence of a rich and powerful kingdom with a high level of civilisation in pre-Christian times. From its capital city in the north-eastern part of the country, not far from the Red Sea the Axumite Empire controlled once a vast territory, including parts of today’s Yemen and Sudan. It was an important crossroads of trading caravans from Europe, Africa and Asia. The empire used its own written language, Ge’ez and its own coins which were employed in trade. With the conversion to Christianity of King Ezana in 340 A.D. Ethiopia can be considered one of the first Christian states. Before, Judaism, introduced most probably by several waves of immigration from Israel, had played a major role in the northern and western centres of the country. From that time on, Christianity has become a major component of Ethiopian culture, up to date. After the decline of the Axumite Empire, 1137 to 1270 A.D., the Zagwe dynasty established its reign over big parts of the country, with the centre of power in Lasta, the area around Lalibela. King Lalibela was the most appreciated king of the Zagwe dynasty and later the town was named after him. It was he who ordered the construction of the sacred town, considered as a “New Jerusalem”. He built 11 rock-hewn churches, all carved out of the red mountain rock. Until today they have been very important places of worship. When the Zagwe dynasty declined, several years of changing rulers and coalitions, conflicts and wars followed, until under Emperor Fasilidas (1632-67) the small village of Gondar in the north was turned into the new capital city and a great religious and artistic centre.

 

In recent history there were other great kings who were able to unify and enlarge the country and oppose foreign invasions and interferences. Kassa Hailu was crowned in 1855 as the “King of Kings” with the crown name of Tewodros II. He ruled the country with strong hands and moved his capital first to Debre Tabor, then to Maqdala, where he built his stronghold in the mountains. There he captured British diplomats, whereupon British troops landed on the Read Sea to liberate them. In 1868 he committed suicide to avoid falling into British hands. The following emperors were Yohannes IV and then Menelik II, who extended the country to its actual size, defeated the Italian invaders in the historical battle of Adwa in 1896, founded the actual capital Addis Ababa and brought modern developments like cars, trains and electricity to Ethiopia.

Haile Selassie, (“Power of Trinity” in Amharic, the official Ethiopian language), the last great emperor crowned in 1930, reigned for half a century until he was overthrown by a socialistic-inspired revolution in 1974. The military committee called the “Derg” under the brutal Leadership of Mengistu Haile Mariam ruled Ethiopia until 1991, when it was overthrown and the first democratic republic was installed.

Many monuments of the ancient and glorious past of this country remain: the monolithic churches of Lalibela, the carved obelisks and churches of Axum, more than 120 monasteries and rock churches in the Tigray region, as well as those scattered here and there along Lake Tana, the source of the Blue Nile. In each of these sacred places ancient paintings, manuscripts and sacred objects are preserved. The diversity of ancient cultures, customs and celebrations are testimonies of the persistent importance of Ethiopia’s history and the Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity with its traditions and ceremonies is still a major part of every day’s life.

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Ethiopia Travel Tips

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Visa and Immigration requirements

Visa applications may be obtained at Ethiopia diplomatic missions located in Abidjan, Accra, Beijing, Bonn, Brussels, Cairo, Dakar, Djibouti, Geneva, Harare, Jeddah, Johannesburg, Khartoum, Lagos, London, Moscow, Nairobi, New Delhi, New York, Ottawa, Paris, Pyongyang, Riyadh, Rome, Sanaa, Seoul, Stockholm, Tehran, Tel Aviv, Tokyo, Tripoli,’yienna, and Washington DC.

Visas are required for all visitors to Ethiopia, with the exception of nationals of Djibouti and Kenya. Visas should be applied for well in advance of any trip as applications can take time to process.

Except in the case of a few nationals, passen­gers in transit in Ethiopia holding confirmed on­ward bookings within 72 hours can obtain transit visas on arrival for a fee of Ethiopian birr 20. However, in this case, passports are held at the airport until departure and a pink-coloured re­ceipt card is issued.

Any visitor intending to take up work or residence in Ethiopia must have a work permit from the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs and a resident permit from the Department of Immigration in the Ministry of the Interior. A visitor on a tourist visa cannot take up work or get a work permit. It is best to have all formalities cleared before you enter Ethiopia and come in on a working visa.

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Health requirements

All visitors (including infants) are required to pos­sess a valid yellow fever vaccination certificate. Vaccination against cholera is also required for any person who has visited or transited a cholera­infected area within six days prior to arrival in Ethiopia. Your doctor may also recommend gamma globulin shots or refresher vaccines for typhoid and polio before you go. Hepatitis, typhoid, meningitis, and other communicable diseases do exist in the country, but most tourists will run lit­tle risk of coming in contact with them.

Malaria is endemic throughout the country ­even at altitudes as high as 2,000 metres (6,560 feet). Visitors should begin taking a recommended chloroquine-based prophylactic two weeks before their arrival and continue taking them for six weeks after their departure. Medication for chlo­roquine-resistant malaria is also a wise precaution, especially when in a malarial area.

Bilharzia (schistosomiasis) is common through­out Ethiopia but is easily avoided by drinking treated water – tap water in Addis Ababa is treated and safe to drink – and by not swimming in lakes and rivers, with the exception of lakes Langano and Shalla, which are known to be bilharzia free.

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International flights

Ethiopia is served internationally by Ethiopian Airlines, Lufthansa, Alitalia, Egypt Air, Kenya Airways, Puntavia (Air Djibouti), Saudia, Sudan Airways, and Yemenia.

Ethiopia’s major point of entry by air is Addis Ababa’s Bole International Airport, which is modest but does provide full passenger facilities – currency exchange, postal services, banking facilities, telephones, a duty-free shop, gift shops, and a restaurant and bar service.

Taxis and rental cars are available at the airport for transport into Addis Ababa.

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Air fares

The usual range of fares is available: first, business, and economy class; excursion fares, bookable any time for stays of between fourteen and forty-five days; an APEX fare, bookable one calendar month in advance, allowing for stays of between nineteen and ninety days. The price of cheaper APEX fares varies according to the season. Stopovers en route are possible when arranged with the airline for all but APEX fares. Reductions are available for children.

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Departure tax

As of mid-200l, the airport departure tax was US$ 20, payable in any convertible currency. Travel­ler’s cheques are not acceptable. On local flights, there is a ‘boarding charge’ of 10 birr for residents and non-residents.

Arrival by rail

The sole point of entry into Ethiopia by rail is at Dewele on the Ethiopia-Djibouti border. Arrivals undergo full customs and immigration checks.

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Arrival by road

There are six ‘official’ points of entry by road into Ethiopia from the country’s neighbours. Moyale serves as the border post from Kenya, Sudan has border controls to Ethiopia at Humera and Metema, Dewele is the point of entry from Djibouti, and Rama and Zala Anbessa from Eritrea. All have full customs and immigration checks.

Visitors intending on driving their own vehicle into Ethiopia should first obtain the necessary permit by writing to the Ministry of Transporta­tion and Communication, PO Box 1238, Addis Ababa.

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Customs

Besides personal effects, a visitor may import duty-free spirits (including liquors) or wine up to one litre, perfume and toilet water up to half a li­tre, and 250 grams (half a pound) of tobacco (up to 200 cigarettes or fifty cigars).

If you are carrying a video camera, laptop computer, or any other pieces of sophisticated electronic equipment, it is usually entered in your passport to ensure that you take it with you when you go and do not sell it while in the country. You do not need to declare still cameras, small shortwave radios, calculators, and similar small electronic devices. Professional journalists and photographers must report to the Ministry of In­formation to get a permit.

Permit is given for temporary import of certain articles – such as trade samples or professional articles – which must be produced on departure or duty will have to be paid.

Visitors may import up to Ethiopia birr 10 and an unlimited amount of foreign currency, provid­ing declaration of such currency (on the appropri­ate blue-coloured form) is made to Customs on ar­rival. This currency declaration form will be re­quired by Customs on departure.

Permit is required for export of antiques and wildlife products from the appropriate authorities.

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Domestic air services

Ethiopian Airlines operates a comprehensive net­work of regular daily flights between Addis Ababa and Axum, Bahar Dar, Dessie, Dire Dawa, Gondar, Humera, Jimma, Lalibela, and Makale, as well as several other flights each week to many other towns. The airline flies to forty-three air­fields and an additional twenty-one landing strips within the country. Charter companies also offer flights to all main airports and to many landing fields not served by the national airline.

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Road services

There are some 10,000 kilometres (6,200 miles) of gravel and dry-weather roads throughout Ethio­pia, and some 3,600 kilometres (2,232 miles) of as­phalt roads. A good bus network operates to and from the countryside from its terminal in Addis Ababa’s Mercato.

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Taxi services

Taxis are immediately available at Bole International Airport. They can also be found outside most hotels in Addis Ababa and at the country’s major centres. There are two types: privately owned blue-and-white vehicles or, in Addis Ababa, Mercedes Benz taxis operated by the National Tour Operation (NTO). The larger blue-and-white taxis have standard routes and pick up and let off passengers along these routes, operating like little buses. There are no meters; there are low standardized prices for the fixed routes, and all prices for special hire should be negotiated in advance to avoid later mis­understandings. NTO taxis can be booked at any of the major hotels. Trips are paid for in advance according to destination; again, the taxis are not metered. These taxis are about ten times more expensive, on average, than the little blue taxis hailed on the street.

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Car rental

Several firms operate car hire services in Addis Ababa. Vehicles may be hired with or without driver. For trips outside the city it is possible to hire insured cars appropriate for the trip (a four­wheel-drive vehicle with driver/translator is rec­ommended).

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Driving

Drivers require a valid International Driving Li­cence, which can be obtained by exchanging your local licence at the Transport and Communica­tions office on Asmara Road in Addis Ababa.

Visitors can recover their original licences a day or so prior to departure. Vehicle owners will require the necessary permit from the Ministry of Transport and Communications. Driving is on the right.

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Rail services

The 778-kilometre (482-mile) Franco-Ethiopian Railway runs from Addis Ababa to Djibouti by way of Nazaret, Awash Station, and Dire Dawa. There are both night and day trains between the capital and Dire Dawa, and the trip takes approxi­mately ten hours. There are first, second, and third classes. The Ethiopian Tourism Commission (ETC) or a travel agent can assist you with sched­ules and making reservations, or you can go di­rectly to the station, which is located near the junction of Churchill and Ras Makonnen avenues.

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Climate

Despite its proximity to the equator, Ethiopia’s high altitude, averaging some 2,400 metres (7,800 feet), ensures a temperate, moderate, even cool climate – certainly not tropical. The highest daytime temperatures rarely exceed an average of 21 or 22°C (70 or 71°F) and for much of the year seldom rise above 16 or 18°C (61 or 64°F). Temperatures at night can drop to a chilly lOoC (50°F) or less. There are two rainy seasons: the irregular short rains from late January to early March, and the long rains that stretch from June until mid-September. May is the warmest month and is usually a time of bright sunny days. Daytime temperatures in January run just as high, but the nights are chillier. June, July, and August are grey, wet, and cool.

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Currency

The local currency is the Ethiopian birr, made up of 100 cents. Notes are issued in denominations of 1,5, 10, 50, and 100 birr. There are five different coins: 1,5, 10, 25, and 50 cents. In February 2001, 8.33 birr were equivalent to one US dollar.

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Currency regulations

There is no limit to the amount of foreign currency imported to Ethiopia, but it must be declared on the currency declaration form obtained on arrival. Up to Ethiopian 10 birr may be legally imported. Foreign currency may be changed only at authorized banks and hotels. The currency declanHion form must be retained as this will be required by Customs on departure.

Visitors may change back any excess Ethiopian birr to foreign currency at the airport before departure. If you do have birr to cash in at the airport, you must, in addition to the currency declaration form, bring with you all receipts for exchange transactions.

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Banks

Banks

Banks have two sets of hours: cash and business. They are open for cash transactions all day from 08.00 to 15.00 including lunchtime Monday to Friday and Saturday 08.00 to 12.00.

Business hours are from 08.00 to 12.00 and 13.00 to 17.00 Monday through Thursday and 08.00 to 11.00 and 13.00 to 17.00 on Friday. All the major banks offer currency exchange. The two private banks have similar working hours.

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Credit cards

Some credit cards are accepted in the major hotels and some of the larger restaurants. American Express is the most widely accepted. The Sheraton and Hilton also accept Visa, MasterCard, Diners Club, Access, and Eurocard.

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Government

Ethiopia, a member of the United Nations and the Organization of African Unity, is an inde­pendent republic, operating under the Federal Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. The president is the head of state, while the prime minister heads the main administrative office for the government. There is a Council of Ministers and Council of Representatives, with permanent secretaries in each ministry. Legislation carried through an elected constitutional council which oversees the application and operation of the constitution.

Local government consists of sixty-five Na­tional/Regional Governments, each comprising a national/regional executive committee, a judicial organ, a public prosecution office, an audit and control office, a police and security office, and a services and development committee. All local officials are elected by the people within each region.

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Language

Amharic is the official language of Ethiopia, although English, Italian, French, and Arabic are widely spoken. In areas outside of the larger cities and towns, indigenous languages are likely to be spoken – of which there are eighty-three, with some 200 dialects. The most common of these are Orominya and Tigrinya.

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Religion
Nearly half of the population of Ethiopia (45 per cent) subscribes to Christianity in the form of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, while a large 35 per cent are Sunni Muslims. Eleven per cent of Ethiopians, however, still adhere to traditional beliefs. The remainder subscribe to a variety of other faiths, including Judaism. Although most of the Falashas, or Ethiopian Jews, were airlifted out of the country at the time of the civil war, it is believed there is still a small remnant population.

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Time
Ethiopia is three hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time. Time remains constant throughout the year. Ethiopians calculate time in a manner similar to that of many equatorial countries – in units of 12 hours. This means that the daytime 06.00, in fact, is midday and, vice-versa, the nigh time 06.00 is midnight.

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Daylight

Being relatively close to the Equator, there is an almost constant twelve hours of daylight. In Addis Ababa, the sunrise and sunset start at around 06.30 and 18.45 respectively.

Calendar
Ethiopia follows the Julian calendar, which con­sists of 12 months of 30 days each and a 13th month of five days (six days on leap year). The calendar is seven years and eight months behind the Western (Gregorian) calendar.

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Business hours

Governrnent offices remain open from 08.30 to 12.30 and 13.30 to 17.30 Monday through Thursday, and from 08.30 to 11.30 and 13.30 to 17.30 on Friday. Government offices are closed on public holidays, Saturdays, and Sundays. Most shops are open from 09.00 to 18.00 or 20.00 from Monday through Saturday with a lunch break from 13.00 to 15.00. Some shops or businesses close on Saturdays at 13.00. A few small all-purpose shops throughout the city open on Sunday mornings.

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Security

The same rules apply for Addis Ababa as for almost any city anywhere. Be careful and take the usual precautions to safeguard yourself and your belongings. Street crime exists, such as non­violent pickpocketing or the snatching of hand­bags or gold neck chains and earrings. Avoid walking the streets at night – take a cab.

A void wearing jewellery on the street, and don’t carry too much cash or valuables on your person. Don’t leave valuables in your hotel room; use the hotel safe-deposit box. Items of any great value should be deposited with a bank.

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Communications

Internet, telephone, telex, fax, e-mail and airmail services connect Addis Ababa to all parts of the world. Services are available at the General Post Office and its many branches, as well as in the main hotels. International direct dialling is avail­able from all the major centres in the country, which are served by microwave.

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Media

There are several foreign-language newspapers published in Ethiopia, including the English daily Ethiopian Hera/d; the English Addis Tribune and Monitor, both weekly; and the Arabic weekly newspaper A/-A/em. The government daily, published in Amharic, is the Addis Zeman. There are other private daily and weekly Amharic newspapers and monthly magazines.

The national news agency is the Ethiopian News Agency, and there are several foreign bureaux operating in Addis Ababa, including the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), Voice of America (VoA), and Reuters.

Ethiopian Television (ETV) broadcasts every evening on weekends, from 13.00 on Saturdays, 12.00 on Sundays and from mid-morning on public holidays. The end of broadcasting varies but is after 23.00. There are programmes in Amharic, Tigrinya, Orominya and English.

Radio service is provided by the Voice of Ethiopia and Radio Fana. The Voice of Ethiopia external service, which broadcasts daily from late afternoon until 23.00 or 24.00, features daily programmes in English, Arabic, French, and Amharic. An internal service broadcasts for a longer period of time, with programmes in many local languages. Radio Fana is an independent service in local languages. Voice of Ethiopia in its FM 97.1, broadcasts for nearly 18hrs a day. The frequency covers Addis Ababa.

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Electric Power

Ethiopia uses 220 volts and 50 Hz. It is best to bring your own round, two-prong adapter. American visi­tors should bring a small step-down voltage converter.

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Medical services

Medical facilities are limited and generally poor, and overtaxed. Contact your embassy for referral to a recommended doctor. If you fall seriously ill or are gravely hurt, you may want to consider evacuation to nearby Nairobi or to Europe. Air rescue services are available, and you might want to make arrangements with one before your trip.

Medical insurance

Medical insurance should be purchased before you leave and preferably include emergency air evacuation coverage.

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Chemists pharmacies

Medical supplies are limited. Visitors should carry an adequate supply of all medicines they may need with them. Those wearing glasses should carry an extra pair – just in case – or, failing that, a prescription. Most chemists and pharmacies maintain regular business hours. Most are open all day on Saturday and there is a system of ‘on-duty’ pharmacists open to 22.30 or 23.00, Sundays and Public Holidays.

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Liquor

Ethiopia’s several brands of commercially brewed beers are very tasty and inexpensive, as are the very palatable local wines. Imported spirits, on the other hand, are expensive. Local drinks such as lej, a type of mead or honey wine, or lelia, a local home-brewed beer, are cheaper – but some can be quite potent.

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Tipping

Tips up to ten per cent are an accepted practice and appreciated. At night, tipping the guard who is watching your car outside a restaurant, usually with one birr, is common practice. During the day, street parking boys will want a tip for watching your car willie you shop. You are not required to tip them for their unsolicited services, but you may, if you wish to do so. You are not expected to tip a taxi driver on a standard route, just as you would not tip a bus driver. But you can tip the driver of a negotiated trip if the service has been good. In this case, a tip of ten per cent is considered generous. Hope Enterprises sells books of meal tickets (8 for 4 birr) at their shop on Churchill Avenue. This are welcome tips for street boys watching cars.

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Clubs

Clubs are a prominent feature of Ethiopian social life, particularly for expatriates. Most are organized around sport, some are philanthropic. Many have excellent facilities and welcome visitors, especially members of international clubs and societies with reciprocal arrangements. Some charge a temporary membership fee.

Sport club activities include angling, bad­minton, basketball, ten-pin bowling, cricket, golf, horse-riding, handball, polo, rugby, soccer, softball, squash, swimming, Tae Kwon Do, and tennis.

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Ethiopia Culture and Tradition

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Cultural and Traditional Ethiopia

Ethiopian culture and tradition have been much influenced by both Christian and Muslim religions. The Amharas and Tigreans are predominantly Christian and adhere to the Orthodox church. The Oromos, the largest ethnic group are more mixed, with Christian and Muslim communities, as well as communities who adhere to local traditions.

The Ethiopian Orthodox Church is the largest religious group (45%), followed by Sunni Muslims (35%) and those with traditional beliefs (11%). An additional 9% are listed as ‘others’. Catholicism and Ethiopian evangelism (Mekane Yesus) are also considered to be important religions in Ethiopia.

Religion has always been a major influence in Ethiopia and no other sub-Saharan country in Africa can trace its origins as far back. Ethiopia is mentioned many times in the Bible and in the Qur’an.

Population of Ethiopia

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With a population of about 53.5 million (1994 census, updated June 1998), Ethiopia represents a melting pot of ancient cultures with Middle Eastern and African cultures evident in the religious, ethnic and language composition of its Semitic, Cushitic, Omotic and Nilotic peoples. The Ethiopian peoples comprise about eighty nationalities of which the Amhara and the Oromo constitute the majority, with about 60 percent of the total population.

Approximately 85 percent of the population live in the rural areas. The annual population growth rate is about 3.09 percent, and the economically active segment, between ages 14 and 60, is about 50 percent of the total population.

Ethiopia is a Federal Democratic Republic composed of 9 National Regional States (NRS) – Tigray, Afar, Amhara, Oromia, Somali, Benishangul-Gumuz, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR), Gambella and Harari – and two administrative councils – Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa. The NRS and the Administrative councils are further divided into 62 zones and 523 woredas.

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Map of Ethiopia

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Map of Ethiopia

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